Am J Sports Med. 2004 Jun;32(4):1063-76.
Nerve injury about the shoulder in athletes, part 2: long thoracic nerve, spinal accessory nerve, burners/stingers, thoracic outlet syndrome.

Safran MR.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, University of California-San Francisco, 500 Parnassus Avenue, Box 0728, San Francisco, CA 94143-0728, USA.

Nerve injuries about the shoulder in athletes are being recognized with increasing frequency. Prompt and correct diagnosis of these injuries is important to treat the patient and to understand the potential complications and natural history, so as to counsel our athletes appropriately. This 2-part article is a review and an overview of the current state of knowledge regarding some of the more common nerve injuries seen about the shoulder in athletes, including long thoracic nerve, spinal accessory nerve, burners and stingers, and thoracic outlet syndrome. Each of these clinical entities will be discussed independently, reviewing the anatomy, mechanism of injury, patient presentation (history and examination), the role of additional diagnostic studies, differential diagnosis, and management.